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REVIEW
The National Cancer Institute Thyroid fine needle aspiration state of the science conference : A summation
Zubair W Baloch, Edmund S Cibas, Douglas P Clark, Lester J Layfield, Britt-Marie Ljung, Martha Bishop Pitman, Andrea Abati
2008, 5:6 (7 April 2008)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-5-6  PMID:18394201
  50,015 1,724 196
RESEARCH
ASC-H in Pap test--definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum
Mamatha Chivukula, Vinod B Shidham
2006, 3:14 (10 May 2006)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-3-14  PMID:16686950
Objective: The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT) is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods: We reviewed SurePath™ (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA) cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years), over 24 months (2002 to 2003). HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture® II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) was performed in 20% of cases (33/161) and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT). Results: HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33) cases, and negative in 36% (12/33) cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21) of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases), 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available) could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54) cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54) cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54) cases. Conclusion: ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.
  35,755 481 25
REVIEW
Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid: an overview
Gia-Khanh Nguyen, Mark W Lee, Jody Ginsberg, Tina Wragg, Darcy Bilodeau
2005, 2:12 (29 June 2005)
PMID:15987502
Thyroid nodules (TN) are a common clinical problem. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid now is practiced worldwide and proves to be the most economical and reliable diagnostic procedure to identify TNs that need surgical excision and TNs that can be managed conservatively. The key for the success of thyroid FNA consists of an adequate or representative cell sample and the expertise in thyroid cytology. The FNA cytologic manifestations of TNs may be classified into seven working cytodiagnostic groups consisting of a few heterogenous lesions each to facilitate the differential diagnosis. Recent application of diagnostic molecular techniques to aspirated thyroid cells proved to be useful in separating benign from malignant TNs in several cases of indeterminate lesions.
  34,206 1,066 34
EDITORIAL
How to write an article: Preparing a publishable manuscript!
Vinod B Shidham, Martha B Pitman, Richard M DeMay
2012, 9:1 (31 January 2012)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.92545  PMID:22363390
Most of the scientific work presented as abstracts (platforms and posters) at various conferences have the potential to be published as articles in peer-reviewed journals. This DIY (Do It Yourself) article on how to achieve that goal is an extension of the symposium presented at the 36 th European Congress of Cytology, Istanbul, Turkey (presentation available on net at http://alturl.com/q6bfp). The criteria for manuscript authorship should be based on the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. The next step is to choose the appropriate journal to submit the manuscript and review the 'Instructions to the authors' for that journal. Although initially it may appear to be an insurmountable task, diligent organizational discipline with a little patience and perseverance with input from mentors should lead to the preparation of a nearly perfect publishable manuscript even by a novice. Ultimately, the published article is an excellent track record of academic productivity with contribution to the general public good by encouraging the exchange of experience and innovation. It is a highly rewarding conduit to the personal success and growth leading to the collective achievement of continued scientific progress. Recent emergences of journals and publishers offering the platform and opportunity to publish under an open access charter provides the opportunity for authors to protect their copyright from being lost to conventional publishers. Publishing your work on this open platform is the most rewarding mission and is the recommended option in the current modern era. [This open access article can be linked (copy-paste link from HTML version of this article) or reproduced FREELY if original reference details are prominently identifiable].
  22,338 12,754 7
REVIEW ARTICLE
Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review
Erika F Rodriguez, Sara E Monaco, Walid Khalbuss, R Marshall Austin, Liron Pantanowitz
2013, 10:7 (24 April 2013)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.111080  PMID:23858317
Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.
  23,813 48 2
RESEARCH
Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology : A diagnostic dilemma
Alka Bhatia, Pranab Dey, Nandita Kakkar, Radhika Srinivasan, Raje Nijhawan
2006, 3:28 (15 December 2006)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-3-28  PMID:17169162
Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results: There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei) were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i) high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio ii) nuclear pleomorphism iii) nuclear margin irregularity iv) hyperchromasia and v) chromatin abnormalities Conclusion: The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.
  21,137 525 31
ABSTRACTS
Abstracts for the 59th Annual Scientific Meeting (November 2011) by American Society of Cytopathology (ASC) at Baltimore, MD, USA

2011, 8:16 (16 September 2011)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.84993  
These are peer-reviewed poster-platform submissions finalized by the Scientific Program Committee. A total of 153 abstracts (14 Platforms [PP1 through PP14] & 139 Posters [1 through 139]) were selected from 161 submissions to be considered for presentation during November 4 - 8, 2011, at the Hilton Baltimore Hotel, to pathologists, cytopathologists, cytotechnologists, residents, fellows, students, and other members of cytopathology-related medical and scientific fields.
  19,898 71 -
REVIEW
Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the liver : Algorithmic approach and current issues in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
Aileen Wee
2005, 2:7 (8 June 2005)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-2-7  PMID:15941489
The role of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the evaluation of focal liver lesions has evolved. Guided FNAB is still useful to procure a tissue diagnosis if clinical, biochemical and radiologic findings are inconclusive. Major diagnostic issues include: (i) Distinction of benign hepatocellular nodular lesions from reactive hepatocytes, (ii) Distinction of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (WD-HCC) from benign hepatocellular nodular lesions, (iii) Distinction of poorly differentiated HCC from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinomas, (iv) Determination of histogenesis of malignant tumor, and (v) Determination of primary site of origin of malignant tumor. This review gives a general overview of hepatic FNAB; outlines an algorithmic approach to cytodiagnosis with emphasis on HCC, its variants and their mimics; and addresses current diagnostic issues. Close radiologic surveillance of high-risk cirrhotic patients has resulted in the increasing detection of smaller lesions with many subjected to biopsy for tissue characterization. The need for tissue confirmation in clinically obvious HCC is questioned due to risk of malignant seeding. When a biopsy is indicated, core needle biopsy is favored over FNAB. The inherent difficulty of distinguishing small/early HCC from benign hepatocellular nodular lesions has resulted in indeterminate reports. Changing concepts in the understanding of the biological behavior and morphologic evolution of HCC and its precursors; and the current lack of agreement on the morphologic criteria for distinguishing high-grade dysplastic lesions (with small cell change) from WD-HCC, have profound impact on nomenclature, cytohistologic interpretation and management. Optimization of hepatic FNAB to enhance the yield and accuracy of diagnoses requires close clinicopathologic correlation; combined cytohistologic approach; judicious use of ancillary tests; and skilled healthcare teams.
  18,058 638 29
RESEARCH
Fine needle aspiration biopsy of intraoral and oropharyngeal mass lesions
Husain A Saleh, Lewis Clayman, Haitham Masri
2008, 5:4 (28 March 2008)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-5-4  PMID:18373853
Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has been rarely used in oral and oropharyngeal lesions. The goal of this study was to assess the value and accuracy of FNA biopsy in the diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal lesions particularly in regards to discriminating benign from malignant tumors. Methods: Sixteen cases of FNA biopsies obtained of various intraoral and oropharyngeal masses or lesions performed at our institution during the eight-year period from 1998 to 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The aspiration cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the histologic examination of the corresponding resected lesions. Results: Sixteen cases of intraoral lesions evaluated by FNA biopsies during the period of 1998-2006 were reviewed. The sites of involvement were: lip [1], maxillary sinus [3], pharynx/oropharynx [5], floor of mouth [4], buccal mucosa [2] and peritonsillar area [1]. Patients' age ranged from 30 to 87 with an average of 54 years. Male to female ratio was 1:3. Cytologically, 7 cases were diagnosed as suspicious/malignant, and 9 cases as benign (including 6 benign neoplasm, 1 atypical, and 2 reactive or "descriptive"). Fifteen cases had corresponding surgical resection for histologic examination, of these, 9 cases were interpreted as malignant, and 6 as benign. There were no false positive diagnoses of malignancy on FNA. Two cases were interpreted as benign or atypical cytologically, but were found to be malignant on histologic examination. Conclusion: FNA biopsy of intraoral and oropharyngeal masses is a valuable procedure for the initial evaluation of various lesions. It provides helpful information about these lesions and avoids hasty or unnecessary surgical biopsy. It is a rapid and relatively noninvasive procedure. Furthermore, aspiration biopsy is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of these lesions, both neoplastic and non-neoplastic, and can be sometimes complemented by ancillary studies for more accurate interpretation. However, its sensitivity in the diagnosis of malignancy is lower than that of histologic samples. This is probably due to the superficial nature and small size of these lesions, the limited space for maneuvering the needle and difficulty in immobilizing the lesion to obtain adequate samples, rather than to interpretation or inherent limitations of the technique itself.
  16,287 687 50
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Cytomorphology of unusual infectious entities in the Pap test
Walid E Khalbuss, Pam Michelow, Cynthia Benedict, Sara E Monaco, Liron Pantanowitz
2012, 9:15 (29 June 2012)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.97763  PMID:22919422
Rare entities in the Pap test, including neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, pose challenges due to their infrequent occurrence in the daily practice of cytology. Furthermore, these conditions give rise to important diagnostic pitfalls. Infections such as tuberculosis cervicitis may be erroneously diagnosed as carcinoma, whereas others, such as schistosomiasis, are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. These cases include granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, schistosomiasis, taeniasis, and molluscum contagiosum diagnosed in Pap tests. Granuloma inguinale shows histiocytes that contain intracytoplasmic bacteria (Donovan bodies). Tuberculosis is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with Langhans-multinucleated giant cells. Coccidioidomycosis may show large intact or ruptured fungal spherules associated with endospores. Schistosoma haematobium is diagnosed by finding characteristic ova with a terminal spine. Molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the appearance of squamous cells with molluscum bodies. This article reviews the cytomorphology of selected rare infections and focuses on their cytomorphology, differential diagnosis, and role of ancillary diagnostic studies.
  16,652 31 2
RESEARCH
Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up
M Salih Deveci, Güzin Deveci, Virginia A LiVolsi, Zubair W Baloch
2006, 3:9 (7 April 2006)
PMID:16603062
The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN). This study reports our experience with 339 cases diagnosed as FON and 120 as FDN. All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule. Histopathologic follow-up was available in all cases. The malignancy rate was 22% (74/359) and 72% (86/120) for cases diagnosed as FON and FDN, respectively. In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma. The risk of malignancy was higher in patients younger than 40 yr (53% vs. 30%) than in patients 40 year or more years old and greater in males (41% vs. 33%) than females. No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis. According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%). In addition, clinical features, including gender and age can be part of the decision analysis in selecting patients for surgery.
  15,672 451 50
CASE REPORTS
Cytological diagnosis of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the ascitic fluid: Report of a case highlighting the diagnostic difficulties
Andrew C Nelson, Charanjeet Singh, Stefan E Pambuccian
2012, 9:9 (31 March 2012)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.94569  PMID:22574079
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon tumor affecting adolescents and young adults that is only rarely encountered in body fluid cytology. We report the cytological features of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the ascitic fluid of a 17-year-old female patient, who had presented with abdominal distention, 21 months after being diagnosed with perirectal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. The rare single neoplastic cells that were admixed with abundant reactive mesothelial cells were initially misinterpreted as reactive mesothelial cells. However, their neoplastic nature was established after a careful review of their cytological features and the performance of immunoperoxidase stains. Compared to the reactive mesothelial cells that were present in the sample, the malignant cells were smaller, with less ample and more homogenous cytoplasm. They had slightly larger, more hyperchromatic, and more frequently eccentric nuclei, with larger nucleoli. This case highlights the potential pitfall of the misinterpretation of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells for reactive mesothelial cells. Awareness of this potential diagnostic problem and recognition of the cytomorphological features of this neoplasm in the body fluids allows the identification of malignant cells, even when they are rare and intimately associated with mesothelial cells.
  15,770 8 2
Pleomorphic adenoma: A diagnostic pitfall in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions on FNAC: Case reports with review of the literature
Renuka Gahine, Vijaya Sudarshan, Nighat Hussain, Chandani Krishnani
2010, 7:17 (17 September 2010)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.70406  PMID:20976206
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is commonly being used with increasing frequency for the pre-operative evaluation of salivary gland lesions. However, it has areas of considerable interpretational difficulties. The most frequent problems involve variations in the expected cytology of pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Salivary gland FNACs performed at Pt. JNM Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, during July 2006 to June 2007 were reviewed, and we report four cases of interesting diagnostic dilemma. As PA is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, it should always be considered and ruled out as the first differential in the diagnosis of salivary gland FNACs. In order to avoid diagnostic pitfalls, we emphasize a diagnostic approach based on the mandatory presence of all three elements of PA, i.e. 3-dimensional cohesive clusters of ductal cells, background of singly lying plasmacytoid myoepithelial cells and dense fibrillary brightly metachromatic stroma with partially obscured entrapped myoepithelial cells. To document the same, we advocate liberal use of repeat aspirations with multiple sampling performed from different parts of the tumor. Some differential diagnostic problems, e.g. carcinoma ex PA, may still however remain insolvable by cytologic means.
  14,771 137 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms
Reema Jaffar, Sambit K Mohanty, Ashraf Khan, Andrew H Fischer
2009, 6:3 (20 January 2009)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.45193  PMID:19495407
Background: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. Methods: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101), follicular adenoma (47), or follicular carcinoma (17). Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin. FNAs were reviewed blindly with the most cellular slide scored for the presence of macrophages and/or hemosiderin. Results: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms ( P <.0001). All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas. Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically. None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages ( P <.12). Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas. Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin ( P <.0003). Conclusions: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.
  13,706 573 3
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland lesions: A study with histologic comparison
Ritu Jain, Ruchika Gupta, Madhur Kudesia, Sompal Singh
2013, 10:5 (25 March 2013)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.109547  PMID:23599724
Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis.
  14,100 39 -
CASE REPORT
Desmoplastic small round cell tumour : Cytological and immunocytochemical features
Nara M Granja, Maria D Begnami, Jeni Bortolan, Adhemar Longatto Filho, Fernando C Schmitt
2005, 2:6 (18 March 2005)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-2-6  PMID:15777480
Background: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods: Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results: The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA). Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion: The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.
  13,802 331 14
RESEARCH
Utility of Thyroglobulin measurement in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of lymph nodes in the diagnosis of recurrent thyroid carcinoma
Zubair W Baloch, Julieta E Barroeta, Janet Walsh, Prabodh K Gupta, Virginia A Livolsi, Jill E Langer, Susan J Mandel
2008, 5:1 (31 January 2008)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-5-1  PMID:18237420
Introduction The most common site for the metastasis of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PTC) is regional lymph nodes. Ultrasound (US) imaging may identify abnormal appearing lymph nodes, suspicious for PTC recurrence. Although fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of abnormal lymph nodes is often diagnostic of recurrence, small or cystic lymph nodes may be non-diagnostic due to lack of tumor cells. The measurement of thyroglobulin (TG) levels in FNAB specimens from lymph nodes suspicious for recurrent PTC can serve as an adjunct to the cytologic diagnosis. Materials and methods 115 abnormal appearing lymph nodes were aspirated under ultrasound guidance in 89 patients with history of thyroid carcinoma. In addition to obtaining material for cytologic interpretation, an additional aspirate was obtained by FNAB and rinsed in 1 ml of normal saline for TG level measurements. Results The cytologic diagnoses included: 35 (30%) reactive lymph node, no tumor seen (NTS), 39 (34%) PTC, 23 (20%) inadequate for evaluation due to lack of lymphoid or epithelial cells (NDX) 15 (13%) atypical/suspicious for PTC, and 3 (3%) other (e.g. paraganglioma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and carcinoma not otherwise specified). TG levels were markedly elevated (median 312 ng/ml; normal < 10 ng/ml) in 28 (72%) cases of PTC lymph node recurrence identified on cytology. TG measurements were also elevated in 5 lymph nodes classified as NTS and 4 NDX on cytology which resulted in 5 and 3 carcinoma diagnoses respectively on histological follow-up. Of the 9 atypical/suspicious cases with elevated TG levels all resulted in carcinoma diagnoses on follow-up. Conclusion The measurement of TG in FNAB specimens from lymph node in patients with history of PTC is useful in detecting recurrent disease, especially in cases when the specimen is known to be or likely to be inadequate for cytologic evaluation.
  13,176 586 34
The Anal Pap smear : Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions
Shehla Arain, Ann E Walts, Premi Thomas, Shikha Bose
2005, 2:4 (16 February 2005)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-2-4  PMID:15715910
Background: Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods: The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results: Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK), atypical parakeratotic cells (APK), and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions: In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98%) for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50%) for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46-56%) of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.
  13,045 442 72
EDITORIAL
Second edition of 'The Bethesda System for reporting cervical cytology' - Atlas, website, and Bethesda interobserver reproducibility project
Ritu Nayar, Diane Solomon
2004, 1:4 (21 October 2004)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-1-4  PMID:15504231
A joint task force of the American Society of Cytopathology (ASC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) recently completed a 2-year effort to revise the Bethesda System "blue book" atlas and develop a complementary web-based collection of cervical cytology images. The web-based collection of images is housed on the ASC website, which went live on November 5 th , 2003; it can be directly accessed at http://www.cytopathology.org/NIH/ .
  13,043 338 18
REVIEW
Should LSIL with ASC-H (LSIL-H) in cervical smears be an independent category? A study on SurePath™ specimens with review of literature
Vinod B Shidham, Nidhi Kumar, Raj Narayan, Gregory L Brotzman
2007, 4:7 (20 March 2007)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-4-7  PMID:17374161
Background: Cervical smears exhibiting unequivocal features of 'low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (LSIL) are occasionally also admixed with some cells suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, 'high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (HSIL). Only a few studies, mostly reported as abstracts, have evaluated this concurrence. In this study, we evaluate the current evidence that favors a distinct category for "LSIL, cannot exclude HSIL" (LSIL-H), and suggest a management algorithm based on combinations of current ASCCP guidelines for related interpretations. Methods: We studied SurePath™ preparations of cervical specimens from various institutions during one year period. Cytohisto correlation was performed in cases with cervical biopsies submitted to our institution. The status of HPV DNA testing was also noted in some LSIL-H cases with biopsy results. Results: Out of 77,979 cases 1,970 interpreted as LSIL (1,523), LSIL-H (146), 'atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL' (ASC-H) (109), and HSIL (192) were selected. Concurrent biopsy results were available in 40% (Total 792 cases: 557 LSIL, 88 LSIL-H, 38 ASCH, and 109 HSIL). Biopsy results were grouped into A . negative for dysplasia (ND), B . low grade (HPV, CIN1, CIN1 with HPV), and C . high grade (CIN 2 and above). The positive predictive values for various biopsy results in relation to initial cytopathologic interpretation were: a . LSIL: (557 cases): ND 32% (179), low grade- 58% (323), high grade- 10% (55); b . LSIL-H: (88 cases): ND 24% (21), low grade- 43% (38), high grade- 33% (29); c . ASCH: (38 cases): ND 32% (12), low grade- 37% (14), high grade- 31% (12); d . HSIL (109 cases): ND 5% (6), low grade 26% (28), high grade 69% (75). The patterns of cervical biopsy results in cases reported as LSIL-H were compared with that observed in cases with LSIL, ASC-H, and HSIL. 94% (32 of 34) of LSIL-H were positive for high risk (HR) HPV, 1 was negative for HR HPV but positive for low risk (LR), and 1 LSIL-H was negative for HR and LR both. Conclusion: LSIL-H overlapped with LSIL and ASC-H, but was distinct from HSIL. A management algorithm comparable to ASC-H and HSIL appears to be appropriate in LSIL-H cases.
  12,385 531 17
CASE REPORT
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD)/Pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint - FNA findings and microanalysis.
Asghar H Naqvi, Jerrold L Abraham, Robert M Kellman, Kamal K Khurana
2008, 5:8 (21 April 2008)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-5-8  PMID:18426573
We report a case of a Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) presenting as a mass in the parotid and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that simulated a parotid tumor. A 35 year-old man presented with pain in the left ear area. A CT Scan of the area showed a large, calcified mass surrounding the left condylar head, and extending into the infratemporal fossa. FNA of the mass showed birefringent crystals, most of which were rhomboid with occasional ones being needle shaped, embedded in an amorphous pink substance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of these crystals showed peaks corresponding to calcium and phosphorus. SEM/EDS is a rapid method of diagnosing calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) and an alternative to more commonly used method of special staining of cell block sections coupled with polarizing microscopy.
  11,966 386 9
RESEARCH ARTICLE
A review of uncommon cytopathologic diagnoses of pleural effusions from a chest diseases center in Turkey
Ebru Cakir, Funda Demirag, Mehtap Aydin, Yurdanur Erdogan
2011, 8:13 (19 July 2011)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.83026  PMID:21799700
Background : After pneumonia, cancer involving the pleura is the leading cause of exudative pleural effusion. Cytologic examination of pleural effusions is an important initial step in management of malignant effusions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of uncommon malignant pleural effusions in a chest disease center in Turkey. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of samples of pleural effusions submitted to Ataturk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Education and Research Hospital Department of Pathology between March 2005 and November 2008 was performed. Results : Out of a total of 4684 samples reviewed 364 (7.8%) were positive for cancer cells. Of the malignant pleural effusions 295 (81%) were classified as adenocarcinoma or carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS). Pleural effusion specimens revealing a diagnosis other than adenocarcinoma/carcinoma NOS were: 32 (8.8%) malignant mesotheliomas, 14 (3.8%) small cell carcinomas, 13 (3.5%) hematolymphoid malignancies and 10 (2.7%) squamous cell carcinoma. Hematolymphoid malignancies included non- Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse B large cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma), multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions: Despite that adenocarcinoma is the most common cause of malignant pleural effusions, there is a significant number of hematological and non-hematological uncommon causes of such effusions. Cytopathologists and clinicians must keep in mind these uncommon entities in routine practice for an accurate diagnosis.
  12,093 55 5
RESEARCH
Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG) in liquid-based paps
Mamatha Chivukula, R Marshall Austin, Vinod B Shidham
2007, 4:2 (22 January 2007)
DOI:10.1186/1742-6413-4-2  PMID:17241469
Objective: Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG), a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods: We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath) Pap tests from 601 women (age 17-74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs) and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um) and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5) per Pap slide. Results: HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 - 79%), reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 - 6%), clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 - 5.2%), parabasal cells (22/477 - 4.6%), endometrial cells (1/477 - 0.2%). Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%). 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 - 28%), LSIL (12/21 - 57%), ASC-H (2/21 - 9.5%), and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 - 14%). The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test). In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases). Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion :We conclude: a. HCG are observed in a high proportion of cervical smears. b . In the vast majority of cases, HCG are benign. c. ECA were only observed in cases with HCG. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of HCG in Pap tests most often represents adequate sampling of the transformation zone, thus increasing the chances of detecting an epithelial cell abnormality. d. Only a few cases with HCG were associated with a serious ECA, but careful scrutiny of all HCG appears warranted to avoid the potential diagnostic pitfall of a significant false negative interpretation.
  11,667 440 8
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study
Papa Dasari, S Rajathi, Surendra V Kumar
2010, 7:16 (5 August 2010)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.67112  PMID:20806087
Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN) was high (20.9%). CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.
  11,859 173 2
Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation
Urmila Banik, Pradip Bhattacharjee, Shahab Uddin Ahamad, Zillur Rahman
2011, 8:8 (30 April 2011)
DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.80527  PMID:21713015
Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18%) revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96%) women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04%) were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.
  11,971 25 1
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